New research indicates that a specific set of natural memory T cells, when triggered by gluten, rapidly become destructive and cause intestinal damage in celiac disease patients.
We want to share with you the groundbreaking findings of a newly published paper by a team from Columbia University titled “Gluten Induces Rapid Reprogramming of Natural Memory αβ and γδ Intraepithelial T Cells to Induce Cytotoxicity in Celiac Disease.” This research may represent a significant milestone in the search for effective treatments and a potential cure for celiac disease.
As you know, celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by the ingestion of gluten, a protein commonly found in wheat, barley, and rye. In individuals with celiac disease, the immune system mistakenly identifies gluten as a threat and mounts an attack on the small intestine, leading to chronic inflammation, nutrient malabsorption, and various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. While a strict gluten-free diet remains the only treatment, it can be challenging to adhere to, and some patients experience persistent symptoms despite dietary restrictions.
The newly published study delves into the intricate immune response triggered by gluten ingestion, specifically focusing on the role of two types of intraepithelial T cells—natural memory αβ and γδ T cells. The research reveals that gluten interacts with receptors on the surface of these T cells, rapidly altering their function. This reprogramming causes the T cells to become cytotoxic, or destructive, to the intestinal lining.
Why are these findings significant for the celiac patient community? One of the Columbia researchers, Dr. Arnold Han, MD, PhD, Robert F. Loeb Assistant Professor of Medicine, told us: “We know that a certain type of T cell, called CD4 T cells, are activated by dietary gluten in celiac patients. However, CD4 T cell activation by gluten is necessary, but not sufficient to cause intestinal damage, which is driven by other types of T cells in the intestine, called intraepithelial T cells. Our work provides important clues as to how CD4+ T cell activation leads to intestinal damage by these intraepithelial T cells. In addition to therapies that target the activation of CD4 T cells, our work provides potential avenues for new celiac disease therapies that specifically target the intraepithelial cells.”
This study marks an exciting breakthrough in celiac disease research. By shedding light on how exactly the immune system responds to gluten in celiac disease, this study provides valuable insights that can guide future research and inspire innovative therapeutic approaches. As the celiac patient community, we eagerly await further advancements that will improve our quality of life and bring us closer to a world where celiac disease is no longer a limiting factor.
Your donations fund groundbreaking research like this. The Celiac Disease Foundation is proud to offer Research Awards and Prizes to researchers at all career stages to promote breakthrough scientific and clinical research in celiac disease. To become a supporter, please consider a tax-deductible gift at celiac.org/donate.
New Study Reveals Important Information about T Cell Behavior after Gluten Exposure in Celiac Disease Patients